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Citing Sources

Selecting a Style Manual

text citation
 

What is a Style Manual?

Most schools, colleges, universities and businesses have a preferred style. Find out which style manual you are expected to use.  If one has not been selected, choose one yourself and stick to that particular style.  Most style manuals have an online version as well as a printed manual.  The online versions require annual fees and may offer extra Q & A services.  The printed manuals involve a one time fee and need replacing as new versions are released. 

The following are some style manuals recommended by scholarly associations for preparing manuscripts, research papers and other publications. The books (manuals) outline the mechanics of writing, such as punctuation, quotation, and documentation of sources. They exist in both in print and on the web (available by online subscription).

 

APThe Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is a style and usage guide used by newspapers and the news industry in the United States. The book is updated annually by Associated Press editors, usually in June. Reporters, editors and others use the AP Stylebook as a guide for grammar, punctuation and principles and practices of reporting. Although some publications use a different style guide, the AP Stylebook is considered a newspaper industry standard and is also used by broadcasters, magazines and public relations firms. It includes an A-to-Z listing of guides to capitalization, abbreviation, spelling, numerals and word usage.

 

APAAmerican Psychological Association style is a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in APA journals. The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision." The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains guidelines for every aspect of writing, especially in the social sciences, from determining authorship to constructing a table to avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations.

 

Chicago ManualThe Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English. It has been published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. It is a widely used and respected style guide, and it is preferred by many for American English style, grammar, and punctuation. Including over 850 pages, it is very complete with a lot of information not found in the other style manuals. The Chicago Manual of Style deals with aspects of editorial practice, from American English grammar and usage to document preparation.

 

MLAThe Modern Language Association of America is a professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature. The MLA aims to "strengthen the study and teaching of language and literature." The organization includes 30,000 members in 100 countries, primarily academic scholars, professors, and graduate students who study or teach language and literature, including English, other modern languages, and comparative literature. Although founded in the United States, the scope of the membership of MLA is international in scope. 

 

 

 

 

 

Citing Sources

An in-text Citation

 

 

 

Two Steps

Whenever you borrow information that you did not gather or think of yourself, tell where the information came from.

Step 1 :   An in-text citation — insert a short reference in the body of your paper.

Step 2:    A Works Cited page — prepare a separate page at the end of the paper

 

 

In-Text Citation

Including a citation note after a sentence or paragraph is an immediate way of letting your reader know where you found the information. 

The author's name may appear in an introductory statement…

According to Hogue, the purpose of an in-text citation is to refer the reader to the works-cited list at the end of your paper. In-text citations are also called parenthetical references because they are enclosed in parentheses.  Place in-text citations immediately after the borrowed information, usually at the end  of a sentence before the final period. (533)

or in parentheses with the page number at the end. 

The purpose of an in-text citation is to refer the reader to the works-cited list at the end of your paper. In-text citations are also called parenthetical references because they are enclosed in parentheses.  Place in-text citations immediately after the borrowed information, usually at the end  of a sentence before the final period.  (Hogue 353).

 

A  full citation of the source is listed in the Works Cited section at the end of the writing. The name or phrase provided in the in-text citation should be the first element that appears as the corresponding entry in the Works Cited list.

 

(at end of paper)
arrow down

Works Cited

 

 

 

Common Types of In-text Citations 

AUTHORS IN TEXT CITATION

ONE AUTHOR

(Davis 64-5)   

TWO OR THREE AUTHORS

(Hall and Hall 140)    If there are two or three authors, include all the names.

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

(Singleton et al. 345)  If there are four or more authors, use the first author's name and the Latin abbreviation et al. (shortened from et al ii, "and others). Note the period after the abbreviation al.

ENTIRE ARTICLE IS ON ONE PAGE

(Allen) If the source is one page, then no page number is given.

AUTHOR ALREADY MENTIONED

(140) If the name of the author has already been given, do not repeat the name in your citation.  For example, if you introduced the borrowed information with a phrase such as "According to Davis" or "As Hall and Hall wrote", then give only the page number.

SAME AUTHOR, TWO DIFFERENT WORKS

(Tannen, Gender 220)
(Tannen, You Just 47)
When you use information in a paper from two different works by the same author, include a short name for each work to differentiate them. In the examples, an author named Tannen wrote two books.  The title of the first book is shortened to Gender, and the title of the second book is shortened to You Just.

NO AUTHOR

("Earthquakes" 212)
If there is no author, use a short title in quotations marks.

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

("Global Warming")
For an encyclopedia article, use the author's name if you know it.  If you don't know it, use the title of the article in quotations marks.  You do not need a page number since encyclopedia articles are arranged alphabetically and your reader will be able to find the source easily.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

(J&J "Credo" screen 2)
For an electronic source (online or CD-ROM), follow the same system as for print sources. If there are no page numbers, use whatever numbering system the source has --section number (abbreviated as "sec."), paragraph number (abbreviated as "par."), screen number--or use no number.
(Hogue 355-6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citing Sources

A 'Works Cited' List

 

 

 

Works Cite List / Page

List all the sources that you actually used in your paper. (Don't include sources that you read but didn't use.) Place the list at the end of the paper or writing.

 

 

Online Citation Editors (helpers)

There are various online editors that will help you create a bibliography "automatically".  However, a correctly written citation will depend on how precisely you enter the required information into the form fields.

wikipedia toolsWeb citations created by EasyBib are dependent of the method used by the developer in setting up HTML tags of the page.  Because the use of tags is largely driven by desire to improve SEO (Search Engine Optimization), standards may be loosely followed by developers. It is likely you will have to review the page carefully yourself to determine the exact page name, sponsor, last update and so on.

 

Wikipedia includes a citation creator on the left side of each page.  Look for the "Toolbox" list in the left margin and the "Cite this page" link.  The following page will return a number of citation styles for the particular Wikipedia page that you are using.

 

 

 

 

Citation Changes of 2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nonperiodical Print Publications

Books

 

 

 

Book Citation

AUTHOR TITLE PUBLISHER CITY PUBLISHER NAME YEAR MEDIUM

Author (hitchcock)

"Ghostly Gallery" book cover

world map

Publisher icon

year  

Web, Print, CD, DVD

Hitchcock, Alfred.

Alfred Hitchcock's Ghostly Gallery.

New York:

Random House,

1962.

Print.

———.

Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbinders in Suspense.

New York:

Dell Publishing,

1962.

Print.

———.

Alfred Hitchcock's Monster Museum.   

New York:

Random House,

1965.

Print.

 

A book citation includes the following:

  1. Author Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown) [period] 
  2. "Title of book" [ in italics] [period]
  3. City of publication: [colon]
  4. Publisher name, [comma]
  5. Year of publication [period]
  6. Medium of publication [period] 

A three em dash (———) is used in bibliographies to represent an author's name in subsequent entries.   (See three em dash.)

 

 

 

 Citing one or more authors

AUTHORS BOOK CITATION 

ONE AUTHOR

List the author's last name, first name and middle initial (if any) followed by a period.

  • Hitchcock, Alfred. Alfred Hitchcock's Ghostly Gallery. New York: Random House, 1962. Print.  

TWO OR THREE AUTHORS

List first author's last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if any) followed by "and". Then list the second author's first name, middle initial (if any), and last name followed by a period.

  • Stewart, David W. and David H. Furse. Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986. Print.

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

If there are four or more authors, list the first author's name and the Latin abbreviation et al. (shortened from et alii, which means "and others"). Note the period after the abbreviation al.

  • Holloway, Susan D., et al. Through My Own Eyes: Single Mothers and the Cultures of Poverty. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. Print.

EDITOR(S) RATHER THAN AUTHOR(S)

List first editor's last name, followed by first name, and middle initial (if any) followed by a comma and "ed."

  • Baughman, Cynthia, ed. Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle. New York: Routledge, 1995. Print.  

 

Practice DragDrop–Book  (Sequencing Practice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodicals

Magazine Article

 

 

 

AUTHORS TITLE MAGAZINE / NEWS DATE PAGE MEIDUM

two authors

"Title" 

Newsweek magazine cover

calendar

pages

Web, Print, CD, DVD

Underwood, Ann and Karen Springen.

"Certified Organic."

Newsweek.

3 Sept. 2002:

70 –71.

Print.

 

"Why Our Economy is Failing."

Daily News.

19 May 2010:

3 – 5.

Print.

 

A magazine article citation includes the following:

  1. Author Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown). [period] 
  2. "Title of article." [in quotes] with a period before final quotation mark
  3. Title of magazine. [in italics] [period]
  4. Day (if given) Month Year: [colon] (The month is abbreviated to three letters, except May, June, and July.  dd Mmm yyyy)
  5. Page numbers of article. [period]
  6. Medium of publication. [period]

Practice  DragDrop–Magazine  (Sequencing Practice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodicals

Journal Article

 

 

 

AUTHOR TITLE JOURMAL VOL. ISSUE YEAR PAGES MEDIUM

Authors

"Title"

journal

Volume No. 288

Issue No.11

year

pages

Web, Print, CD, DVD

Hodnett, et al.

"Effectiveness of Nurses as Providers of Birth Labor Support in North American Hospitals."

The American Journal of Anesthesiology.

288.11

(2002):

1373-81.

Print.

 

A journal article citation includes the following:

  1. Author Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown). [period]  (Citing one or more authors)
  2. "Title of article." [in quotes] with a period before final quotation mark
  3. Title of jounal. [in italics] [period]
  4. Volume number. [period] and Issue number [no period]
  5. (Year):  [ in parentheses] [colon]
  6. Inclusive page numbers. [period] (1373–81  not  1378–1381)
  7. Medium of publication. [period]

(MLA  Article in a Scholarly Journal 5.4.2)

Practice DragDrop–Journal  (Sequencing Practice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodicals

Newspaper Article

 

 

 

AUTHOR TITLE NEWSPAPER DATE & EDITION PAGES MEDIUM

one author

"Title" 


S. F Chronicle logo

calendar

pages

Web, Print, CD, DVD

Schevitz, Tanya.

"Universities Face Student Deluge."

San Francisco Chronicle

4 Sept. 2009 late ed.:

C12.

Print.

Bakeman, Paul.

"Tritons Win Nationals."

Peninsula Weekly

3 Dec. 2009:

A1.

Print.

 

A newspaper article citation includes the following:

  1. Author Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown). [period] 
  2. "Title of article." [in quotes] with a period before final quotation mark
  3. Newspaper name [italics]
  4. Date [dd Mmm yyyy] edition (if any):  [colon]
  5. Page numbers of article. [period]  (give first page on which the article appears)
  6. Medium of publication. [period]

(MLA  Article in a Newspaper 5.45)

Practice DragDrop–Newspaper  (Sequencing Practice)

 

 

 

 

 

Web Publications

Internet Page

 

 

Citing a Page Within a Website

AUTHOR / COMPILER/ PAGE TITLE TITLE OF OVERALL SITE SPONSOR AGENCY DATE / UPDATE MEDIUM ACCESS DATE URL*

Authors

 

"Title"

 

Web site   

 

institution

calendar

Web, Print, CD, DVD

laptop

world wide web

Russell, Tony et al.

 

"MLA Formatting and Style Guide."

The Purdue OWL

 

Purdue U Writing Lab,

09 May 2012.

Web.

28 Dec 2013.

<http://owl. english. purdue. edu/ owl/ resource/ 747/08/>

Fogarty, Mignon.

"Avoid This Common Passive Voice Mistake!"

Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips.   

Macmillan Holdings, LLC,

14 Nov 2013.

Web.

30 Dec 2013.

 

 

"Accidental Hero: Benefits of Forensics."

Accidental Hero–Room 408.   

PBS: Public Broadcasting Service,

2002.

Web.

10 Jan. 2003.

 

 

"Boston Columnist Resigns Amid New Plagiarism Charges."

CNN.

Cable News Network,

19 Aug. 1998.

Web.

6 Mar. 2009.

 

Sevastopoulos, Julie

(this website)

"Citing Your Sources."

Grammar-Quizzes.

N. p., 

2014.

Web.

1 Jan 2014.

 

 

An Web article citation includes the following:

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown) [period]  (Citing one or more authors)
  2. Title of the work [italicized if the work is independent; in quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work]
  3. Title of the overall website [italics] if distinct from #2 [period]
  4. Version or edition used (if available) [period]
  5. Publisher or sponsor of the site [if not available , use N.p. (not provided)] [comma]
  6. Date of publication or date modified (dd Mmm yyyy  If nothing is available, use n.d.) [period]
  7. Medium of publication (Web) [period]
  8. Date of access. [dd mmm yyyy] [period]
  9. <URL>. (optional) [in angled brackets] [period]

 

MLA  no longer requires the use of URLs as they change often and the content may occur in multiple places. If a URL is required by an employer or instructor, include the URL in angled brackets and break long URLs only after directory slashes. Follow the URL with a period. "The inclusion of URLs has proved to have limited value, for they often change, can be specific to a subscriber or a session of use, and can be so long and complex that typing them into a browser is cumbersome and prone to transcription errors." (MLA  5.6.1)

 

 

Citing an Overall Website (rather than an article or topic)

(MLA  Web Publications. 5.6)

DragDrop—Web Page (Sequencing Practice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sound Recording

Music

 

 

 

COMPOSER / WRITER SONG TITLE & ALBUM PERFORMERS CONDUCTOR/PRODUCER DISTRIBUTOR RELEASE YEAR MEDIUM

Beethovan

"Title." Album  

Authors

Conductor

studio/distributor

calendar

Web, Print, CD, DVD

Beethoven, Ludwig van.

The 9 Symphonies.   

Perf. NBC Symphony Orchestra.

Cond. Arturo Toscanini.

RCA,

2003.

CD.

Sting.

"Every Breath You Take." Synchronicity.

Perf. The Police.

The Police, Hugh Padgham.

A & M,

1983.

Vinyl record (7").

Cobain, Kurt , et al.

"Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind.

Nirvana.

Butch Vig.

Geffen,

1991.

Audiocassette.

Nirvana.
(focus on group effort)

Nevermind.    

 

 

Geffen,

1991.

CD.

 

A sound recording citation includes the following:

  1. Composer Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown). [period]  (Citing one or more authors)
  2. "Song Title." [in quotes] (period inside las quote) Album Title. [italics] [period]
  3. Performers (optional) — Perf. First Last Name, First Name Last Name. [period]
  4. Conductor / Producer Name (optional) — Cond. First Name Last Name. [period]
  5. Distributor Name,  [comma]
  6. Release Year. [yyyy] [period]
  7. Medium of publication. (DVD, Audiocassette, CD, LP, etc.) [period]

See DragDrop–Music  (Sequence Practice)

(MLA Sound recording 5.7.2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Film or Video Recording

Movies

 

 

 

Citing a Movie or a Scene in a Movie

SCENE (optional) TITLE DIRECTOR PERFORMERS (optional) STUDIO / DISTRIBUTOR RELEASE YEAR MEDIUM

scene clipboard

Film Title.

Author (hitchcock)

Authors

movie

calendar

 

Web, Print, CD, DVD

"Strange Attacks."

The Birds .

Dir. Hitchcock.

Perf. Tippi Hedron.

Universal Pictures,

1963.

Film.

 

Citizen Kane.

Dir. Orson Welles.

Perfs. Orson Welles, Joseph Cotton.

RKO Radio Pictures,

1945.

Film.

 

The King's Speech.

 

Dir.  Tom Hooper.

Perfs. Colin Firth, Geoffrey Rush, Helena Bonham Carter.

See-Saw Films,

2010.

Film.

 

Ed Wood.

Dir. Tim Burton.

Perfs. Johnny Depp, Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette.

Touchstone,

1994.

DVD.

 

A movie scene citation includes the following:

  1. "Scene name." [quotes] [period inside last quote]
  2. Movie Title. [italics] [period]
  3. Director Name — Dir. First Name Last Name. [period]
  4. Perfomers Name (optional) — Perf. First Name Last name, First Name Last Name. [period]
  5. Distributor Name,  [comma]
  6. Release Year. (yyyy) [period]
  7. Medium of publication. (DVD, Film, etc.) [period]

 

Citing the Movie 

Citing the Actor

Citing the Director

 

DragDrop–Film (Sequencing Practice)

(MLA  A Film or a Video Recording 5.7.3)

 

 

 

 

 

A Work or Visual Art

Painting, Lithograph, Photograph, Sculpture

 

 

 

Citing a Work of Art

ARTIST TITLE YEAR MEDIUM LOCATION

artist

painting

calendar

media - pallette

museum

Van Gogh, Vincent.

Sunflowers

1888.

Oil on canvas.

National Gallery, London.

Friedlander, Lee.

Texas

2006.

Gelatin silver print.

Collection of the artist.

Bufano, Beniamino Benvenuto.

Bear and Cubs

N.d.   

Granite. 

Oakland Museum of Art.

 

A visual work citation includes the following:

  1. Artist Name—last name [comma] first name, middle initial (if unknown). [period]  (Citing one or more authors)
  2. "Title of Minor Work." if the work is part of a series [quotes] (period before final quote)
  3. Title of Major Work.if work stands alone (is not part of a larger work or series) [italics] [period]
  4. Year. [yyyy] (if unknown write N.d.) [period]
  5. Medium. (e.g., oil, marble, wood, pastels, steel, etc.) [period]
  6. Museum. [period]

(A work of visual art 5.7.6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citing Sources

Resources

 

 

 

Resources

 

Style Manual Abbreviations (used in this website)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice

Citation Practice

book flying
 

 

 

Identify the correctly written citation.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" button to the left or the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom.

 

1.

Citation Format for Books - single author

Title: Knossos Mythology—History Guide to the Archaeological Site

Author: Antonis Vassilakis

Publisher: Adam Editions

City Published: Athens

Editor: Costas Adam

Date Published: 2002


2.

Citation Format for a Book with Multiple Authors

 

Title: Aegean Art and Architecture

Author: Donald Preziosi, Louise A. Hitchcock

Publisher: Oxford University Press

City Published: Oxford

Editor: Costas Adam

Date Published: 1999


3.

Book with an Editor Listed Rather Than an Author

 

Title: Atlas of Classical Archaeology

Author: --

Publisher: McGraw-Hill

City Published: New York

Editor: M. I Finley

Date Publisher: 1977


4.

Magazine Article  

 

Title: Palo Alto Idea House

Author: Ann Bertelsen and Daniel Gregory

Magazine name: Sunset

City Published: --

Volume: --

Date Published: September 2002

Pages: 107–108

URL: www.sunset.com


5.

Journal Article 

 

Title: Defying death after DNA damage

Author: Tina Rich, Rachel L. Allen & Andrew H. Wyllie

Associated Institution: Dept. of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

Publisher: Nature

City Published: --

Volume: Vol. 407

Date Published: 12 October 2000

 

 


6.

Newspaper Article

Title: Oakland hills fire quelled – 10 acres burn

Author: Suzanne Herel, Ray Delgado

Newspaper name: San Francisco Chronicle

City Published: --

Date: Friday, Sep 20, 2002

Page: C18

URL: http://www.sfgate.com

 


7.

Government Web

 

Title: Curious Results from Mars

Author: Gronstal, Aaron

Editor: Julie Fletcher

Overall Web site: Astrobiology

Associated Institution: NASA

Date Posted or Modified: December  23, 2013

Date Visited: December 30, 2013

URL: http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/2013/12/23/curious-results-from-mars/


.

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/2013/
12/23/curious-results-from-mars

8.

Academic Website   (fictitious)

 

Title: Top Ten Ways to Improve Your Writing

Overall Site: The English Writing Center

Author: Jayne McBride

Associated Institution: Midtown College

Location: Los Angeles, California

Date Last Modified: 2013

Date Visited: May 6, 2013

URL: http://www.midtowncollege.edu/faculty/mcbridej/


9.

A Wiki

 

Title: Amaranth

Authors: Wikipedia contributors

Web site Name: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Associated Institution: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

City Published: —

Date Last Modified: January 5, 2014

Year Visited: January 10, 2014

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranth 

 


<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranth>.

10.

A Film

Title:The Social Network

Director: David Fincher

Performers: Jesse Eisenberg, Andrew Garfield and Justin Timberlake

Writers: Aaron Sorkin (screenplay), Ben Mezrich (book)

Studio / Distributor: Columbia Pictures, Culver City, California


. Film.

11.

A Painting

 

Title:The Mona Lisa

Artist: Leonardo da Vinci

Medium: oil on poplar [wood from a type of tree]

Subject: unknown

Date: 1503-1506

Location captured: Italy

Current Location: The Louvre, Paris


1503-1505. Oil.