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Periods

Marking sentence ends, abbreviations and decimals

period

 

 

Sentence Divisions

PERIOD
1A. ENDING AN INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

Jack is tired.  He's going home.  

 

1B. ELLIPSIS

Malcolm said, "All of us seem to make up our mindsin an instant." 

(indicates omitted words: with 3 points) 

1C. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Print.

NO PERIOD
 

Jack is tired; he's going home. 

A semicolon may be used between closely related sentences.   

 

 

 

 

 

(1A) Also see Run-on Sent and Bulleted lists.  (MLA 3.2.11)  (APA 4.02) (Chicago Manual 6.13) (AP 330)    
(1B) See Ellipsis.    
(1C) See Citations.    

 

 

 

 

 

Periods

Abbreviations

 

 

Abbreviations

PERIOD
2A.DATE AND TIME

Jan.  Feb. Mar.   Aug. Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.   

Sun. Mon. Tue. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat.

a.m. or AM / p.m. or PM 

(CMOS 15.42–4)  (APA 7.1)   

  
2B PROPER NOUNS, TITLES

Mr.  , Mrs.

Dr. Mc Cain is out today.  doctor

E. E. White is a famous author.

Robert Downey Jr.  (or ,Jr.,) is starring in the movie.   / Sr. (senior)

2C COUNTRIES AND LOCATIONS

U.S.  Traditionally appears with periods, but may be omitted, especially in scientific contexts.
Fr., Ger., Isr., It. Neth. , Swed. , Russ.   (Chicago Manual 15.33)

Ala., Ark., Ariz.,  Calif.Colo.D.C., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill.  (Chicago Manual 15.29)

Ft. (fort) Meyers,  Mt. (mount) Fuji,  St. (Saint) Lawrence Bridge

Ave., Blvd. St., 1200 E. Main St.    (CMOS 15.35)

1D. LATIN ABBREVIATIONS – I.E. & E.G.

Cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli) have anti-cancer properties.    See For example.

Cruciferous vegetables (i.e., Brassicaceae) have flowers shaped like a cross.

Cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, cabbage, cress, etc.)  have flowers shaped like a cross.

The Broncos vs.  (versus) the Cowboys will take place at the Dallas Sports Arena.

2E ORGANIZATIONS, GROUPS, DEPARTMENTS

 

 

NO PERIOD
OTHER SYSTEMS

Jan,  Feb, Mar, Apr , May, Jun, Jul,  Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec /
Ja
,  F,   MrApMyJe,  Jl,   Ag,  S,  O,  N,  D    The period may be omitted. Be consistent. 

Su  M  Tu  W  T  h F  Sa   Abbreviations are used on calendars and in databases.

AM   PM   The periods may be omitted with the capital letters.

EST eastern standard time, PST Pacific standard time  capital and in italics

 

Miss Mary is here to see you.   Also used for older women by shopkeepers.

 

 

US dollars  UAE    UK

N, E, W, S  directions  The periods may be omitted with the capital abbreviation.

AK (Alaska), CA

 

 

 

The UN (United Nations) is located in New York.
The FBI and CIA conducted the recovery mission. (initials)
The YMCA  (Young Men's Christain Association ) will sponsor the event.
I am getting MCB  (molecular cell biology) masters. (initial word)
He studies ESL (English as a Second Language).

Periods are not used with acronyms, names formed by taking the first initial of each word.   

 

Style Manual Abbreviations: AP (Associated Press), APA (American Psychological Association), CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style), GREGG (Gregg Reference Manual); MLA (Modern Language Association)

 

 

 

 

 

Periods

Other

 

 

Other

PERIOD
3 NUMBERS

His temperature is 98.6   decimal points  

The cost is $ 2,560.45 (cents) decimal points in currency

1.800.555.0000  modern method of writing telephone numbers

3B WEB DOMAIN & FILE EXTENSIONS

URL: www.domain_name.com domain name / extension

Filename:  businessdraft.doc  / period.gif / period.html   name / extension

Email address: me@att.com service provider / extension

3C MEASUREMENTS

 

NO PERIOD
FRACTIONS AND NUMBER SERIES

  98 and 6/10

  1 (800) 555-0000  traditional method of writing telephone numbers

 

 

PERIODS OMITTED

It measure 25 cm high, by 2 m wide

It weights 60 kg and is made of wood.

(cd, ft, hr, hk, lb, min, ml, sl)       (APA 4.02)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

I am studying eng. so that I can speak and understand the language better.
Lowercase means engineering. Uppercase means English.

We'll meet here at 12:00 A.M. for lunch.

SOLUTION

I am studying English so that I can speak and understand it better. (Eng.)
I am studying engineering so that I can understand the field better. (eng. )

We'll meet here at 12:00 p.m. / PM for lunch.
Remember that 12:00 a.m. is 00:00 (midnight) on a 24 hour clock.

 

 

 

 

Resources 

 

Style Manual Abbreviations (used in this website)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Using Periods

music

 

 

 

Title

The CYS (Children's Youth Symphony) will be holding a concert at 4 P.M.

They will be performing and the Performing Arts Center at 675 S Silver Dr.

Send your request for tickets to 6000 Main Street, San Jose, Ca. 90001.

Please indicate which seating area you are interested in (eg., Orchestra, Balcony, Grand Tier, Dress Circle, Orchestra Ring, or Box Seats).

The musical director , Mr. L .Frank Taylor Jr. , will be holding rehearsals this week.

Please send your request before Sept, 21. Thank you.

The tickets range from $12.50 to 25 per person.

The seats are 45 cm wide. Please let us know if you will need other seating.

Please arrive on time all late arrivals will have to wait until intermission to enter.

You can also contact us on our website http.www.cys.org.

 

 

 

 

Complete the sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom, or click the check button to the left  as you go.

 

1.
The CYS (Children's Youth Symphony) will be holding a concert at 4 P.M.

   

2.
They will be performing and the Performing Arts Center at 675 S Silver Dr.

   

3.
Send your request for tickets to 6000 Main Street, San Jose, Ca. 90001.

   

4.
Please indicate which seating area you are interested in (eg., Orchestra, Balcony, Grand Tier, Dress Circle, Orchestra Ring, or Box Seats).

   

5.
The musical director, Mr. L .Frank Taylor Jr., will be holding rehearsals this week.

   

6.
Please send your request before Sept, 21. Thank you.

   

7.
The tickets range from $12.50 to 12 per person.

   

8.
The seats are 45 cm wide. Please let us know if you will need other seating.

   

9.
Please arrive on time all late arrivals will have to wait until intermission to enter.

   

10.
You can also contact us on our web site http.www.cys.org.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Editing

 

 

Correct or Incorrect?

  1. Select a response correct or incorrect.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 11-20" button at the bottom, or click the "Check" button to the left  as you go.

 

11.
The stock of J C Penny Co Inc, rose to $24 29 per share because the new CEO will be the former senior vice president of Apple retail stores


12.
The instructor walks into class takes attendance asks for homework then he begins class


13.
— "Do you expect me to talk Goldfinger "

— "No Mr Bond I expect you to die "


14.
Slice an apple in half and sprinkle 1 tsp or 5 ml of cinnamon on top place the two halves on a sheet of foil in the oven and bake at  350 °F / 180 °C & for 15 min


15.
Dr Murray, Michael Jackson’s doctor, was texting at 1:08 pm during the hours that the pop singer passed away in his LA home


16.
A five-hour computer outage shut down UA (United Airlines) early Sat morning causing the cancellation of 9,000 flights by 3 am EST, United announced on Twitter, "Flight status and flight rebooking are fully refreshed on united com Thanks again for your patience"