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Hyphens & Capitalization in Headings

Linking words to clarify meaning

hyphen

 

 

 

Clarifying Meaning

NO HYPHEN

Two footstoolsTwo footstools

Two footstools sold for a half-million dollars at  Sothebys. (quantity)

We have used bookstores for our meetings. (utilized the location)

When the patient recovers, take him to his room.  (regains health)

Early American Buys at Furniture Auction  (An individual came before the expected time.) buys = (v.)

HYPHEN

Two-foot stoolsTwo-foot stools

Two-foot stools sold for a half-million dollars at  Sothebys. (measurement of stools)

We have used-book stores for our meetings. (possess stores with preowned books)

When the patient re-covers, take him to his room. (covers himself again with clothing)

Early-American Buys at Furniture Auction (A style of furniture is available at a good price.) buys = (n.)

 

Also see   Numbers as adjectives 
Also see Plural Compounds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyphen

Comparative length and use

Comparison of dash length
 

 

Hyphen, en dash, em dash

HYPHEN en dash em dash

A hyphen is slightly shorter than an en dash. A hyphen is a standard key on the keyboard of a computer. U+2012

An en dash is half the length of an em dash.  It is slightly longer than a hyphen.  If you are uncertain how to insert an en dash symbol, you can use a hyphen instead. Windows: Alt 1050 / Mac OSX: Option - / U+2013

An em dash is the width of a capital M.  It is twice the length of an en dash.  If you are uncertain how to insert an em dash symbol, you can use a double hyphen (no space between.) Windows: Alt 1051 / Mac OSX: Option Shift - / U+2014

CONNECTS WORDS CONNECT NUMBERS IN A RANGE SET OFF COMMENTS

Its a three-dog night.

Let's play ping-pong.

www.grammar-quizzes.com

Read pages 213–230.

We are open 10 a.m.–5 p.m., Monday–Friday.

"up to and including"

We won't go there again—ever. (no space before or after)

 

"I need to add"   

SPLIT A SYLLABLE AT END OF LINE MINUS SIGN SET OFF A LIST

We are a large multi-
national company that
is rapidly expanding.

 

$ 1,500 –   500

We bought fruit—mangoes, papayas, and bananas— at the market.

(Gregg 1632e)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyphens

Words in Transition

 

 

 

Hyphen History:  words in transition 

TWO WORDS (OPEN) HYPHENATED ONE WORD (CLOSED)

Linked words change through time.  As they become more closely associated, they move through the three phases. Phase 1:  A term is created for a specific use. 

Phase 2:  After a period of use, the term may enter conventional use, and then a hyphen is added as a temporary way of the linking the two words.

Phase 3:  As the word becomes accepted, included in dictionaries, the bond between the two words becomes more permanent resulting in a compound word.

good bye

good-bye

goodbye

bird feeder, bird nest (bird words in transition)

bird-dog, bird-watch

birdhouse, birdseed, birdcage, birdbath

house painting, house building

house-raising, house-sitting

housecleaning, housekeeping, housewarming

vice president, vice admiral (vice words in transition)

vice-consul, vice-chancellor, president-elect

viceroy

on line

on-line

online

electronic mail

e-mail

email (not formally accepted but often used as one word)

Web site
 

 

website (not formally accepted but often used as one word)

It is hard to know whether a term made up of two closely associated words needs a hyphen or not.  Use a dictionary as your resource and as your defense if you are challenged.
(CMOS 7.85) (GREGG 801)

 

 

 

Dictionaries

Using hyphens clarifies word use and phrasing, which otherwise might be confusing.  Dictionaries do not always agree on whether a word should be written as one word (closed), two words (open) or with a hyphen (hyphenated). 

The URLs have been included in the citations above for your convenience; however, MLA no longer recommends their inclusion.

 

Style Manuals

Style Manual Abbreviations: AP (Associated Press), APA (American Psychological Association), CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style), GREGG (Gregg Reference Manual); MLA (Modern Language Association)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyphen

Usage

 

 

 

Compound Words

TYPE EXAMPLES


Use a hyphen between two nouns of equal importance:


 singer-songwriter, city-state, producer-director,
hocus-pocus, wheeler-dealer, goody-goody, walkie-talkie, no-no

Use a hyphen between two numbers spelled out:   tens and units (21 – 99):

AP  "when large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in -y to another word: twenty-one, fifty-five, etc."

Chicago Manual spells out numbers
one to ninety-nine; AP & APA spell out numbers one to nine)

I counted sixty-five.

She is twenty-one.

BUT: I met her in 1991. Do not spell out the names of years.

(CMOS 7.83) (MLA  3.2.6g ) (AP 329) (APA ) (GREGG 804.b, 817a.–f.)

 

 

 

Letter Collision or Readability

TYPE EXAMPLES


Use a hyphen between two letters to avoid a word that can be misread:

Including the hyphen visually separates the final letter of the prefix and the initial letter of the root word.


reenter  re-enter; reelection  re-election, antiitch anti-itch, coopt  co-opt, deice de-ice, shelllike  shell-like, nonnative non-native (but not cooperate and coordinate) mutiply  multi-ply

Use a hyphen to distinguish homonyms:
Including the hyphen more easily differentiates one word from another word with a closed spelling.

recreation re-creation; unionized un-ionized, remark  re-mark, resign re-sign, reserve re-serve; recover re-cover

(CMOS 7.85) (MLA 3.2.h) (GREGG 833.b, 834-5, 837)

 

 

 

Line Breaks for Printed Material

TYPE EXAMPLE

 

Use a hyphen to split a word to accommodate a fixed sentence length in print:

 

 

Hyphens cause writers more trou- ble than any other form of punc- tuation, except perhaps commas. This is because the hyphen has no equivalent in speech; it is punctua- tion created purely by the needs of print.
 

 

 

See Gregg Reference Manual for details ( § 901-919).

 

 

 

Linking Words that Modify a Noun

TYPE EXAMPLES


Use a hyphen to link two nouns that modify another noun:


The Menlo-Atherton train station, The California-Nevada border

Use a hyphen to clarify a modifier and a noun:
(hyphens and readability; Chicago Manual 7.85)

[three foot] stools   three-foot stools

Use a hyphen to link multiple words together as modifiers:
(multiple hyphens; Chicago Manual 7.88)

The forget-me-not state flower
He is a Jack-of-all-trades guy.
If you are a  do-it-yourself person, don't call us for an estimate.
We offer one-to-one classes at convenient times.

Use a hyphen to link a modifying fraction:

a one-half inch piece (adj.)  but not one half of Congress (n.)
a quarter-mile run (adj.) ; a half-mile race  but not a half mile (n.);

Use a hyphen to link a modifying number:

an eight-hour day, a two-week vacation; a 40-hour-work week, It was a two-thousand-twenty-six dollar-fine, a fourteenth-century church, twenty-first century literature, a sixteen-year-old girl, a ninety-year-old woman; a third-floor apartment

Use a hyphen to link a modifying color:

emerald-green lake, coal-black eyes   but emerald green (n.) coal black (n.)
purplish-pink paint, purple and pink paint  but black-and-white paint

Use a hyphen to indicate an inexact amount: (odd)

sixty-odd people

Use a hyphen to link an adjective and a noun modifier:
(adjective+noun; Chicago Manual 7.9)

small-state senators, high-stakes gambling, middle-class neighborhood, kilowatt-hour meter, same-sex marriage, a tenure-track position

Use a hyphen to link a modifying adverb (not ending in -ly):   ill-, well-, lesser-, little-, much-, best-, most (CMOS 7 .86)

ill-favored project, well-known person, little-known fact, best-selling novel, most-skilled workers

Use a hyphen to link a modifying -ing participle: (before and after the noun)

mind-blowing experience, thirst-quenching drink, tongue-lashing speech; cutting-edge technology, chopping-block technique

Use a hyphen to link a modifying -ed participle:  (before and after the noun)

web-based course, fast-paced movie, double-padded shoulders, open-mouthed jar, mass-produced cars; dressed-up people, stuffed-shirt executive

  cross-, full-, ex-, ever-, e-

cross-country race, a full-length mirror, the ever-present road congestion, ex-boyfriend, e-commerce web site

- free, -sided, -fold, -elect 

a toll-free number, a nicotine-free cigarette, wood-sided house, four-fold recipe, president-elect, mayor-elect;

Use a hyphen to link a proper noun and an adjective:

Afro-American  woman (but not African American) Greco-Roman wrestling; Franco-American Studies Center (but not French Canadian or Latin American)

Use a hyphen to link a relationship term: (-in-law, great-, self-)

sister-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law, great-grandmother,
self-knowledge study, self-educated man, self-possessed child

Use a hyphen to link a modifying prefix with a proper noun or number:
Separate a prefix from a proper noun with a hyphen.

pro-British forces, anti-Semitic statement (prefixes with proper nouns), pre-1900 coin (prefixes with dates), mid-1985 to late 1986 music, pro-American magazine, un-American activities

(CMOS 7.86) ( MLA 3.2.6 ) (Gregg § 813–816)

 

 

 

Range of Time or Variation  

TYPE EXAMPLES

Use a hyphen to link a range of time:
(hyphen with word space; Chicago Manual 7.89)

thirty- and sixty-minute massages; twenty- to thirty-five people; five- or ten-minute intervals;

Use a hyphen to link a range or variation:
(hyphen with word space; Chicago Manual 7.89)

long- and short-term memory; over- and under-worked employees; small- and large-scale construction projects, pre- and postnatal care, macro- and microeconomics
 

But not June–July (uses an en dash which is longer. See Hyphen en dash em dash
(AP 330) (CMOS 7.89) (Gregg 833.d–f)

 

 

 

 

 

Hyphens

Prefixes

 

 

 

SOURCE 1:  The Chicago Manual of Style

Compound words formed with prefixes are normally "closed"  (one word). (CMOS 7.9 #3)  

PREFIXES HYPHENATED  ONE WORD

ante, anti, bi, bio, co, counter, cyber, extra, hyper, infra, inter, intra, macro, mega, meta, micro, mid, mini, multi, neo, non, over, post, pre, pro, proto, pseudo, re, semi, social, super, supra, trans, ultra, un, under

         

meta-analysis, multi-institutional, pro-life,

 

All prefixes are usually one word.
antebellum, antibacterial, binomial, bioscience, coauthor, counterclockwise, cyberspace, extrafine, hypertext, infrastructure, interfaith, intramural, macroeconomics, megavitamins, metadata, microeconomics, midcareer, minivan, multicolor, neonatal, nonviolent, overwork, posttest, preterm, promarket, prototype, pseuonym, semiconductor, sociolinguistics, subzero, supermarket, supraorbital, transatlantic,ultrasound, unfunded, underrate

un-, pro-, anti-, pre-, trans-, mid-, etc.

Except with proper nouns:
un-American, pro-Arab, pro-Canadian, anti-Reagan, trans-America, mid-July, post-Vietnam, un-English, Pre-Rafaelite, pseudo-Tudor, pre-1900

 

anti-, re-, co, non, un-, intra-, etc.

Except when separating root words with same initial letter: anti-intellectual, re-entry, co-own, un-unionized, intra-arterial, semi-invalid

 

sub-

Except with double prefixes:
sub-subparagraph

 

The table above lists a few examples. For details, please see the Chicago Manual of Style which is available on Amazon and in most public libraries.

 

 

 

SOURCE 2:  The Associated Press Stylebook 

Compound words formed with prefixes are mostly "closed" with more exceptions than Chicago Manual. (AP 51)

PREFIXES HYPHENATED  ONE WORD

anti-, pro- 

Except when indicating favor for some party, system, idea:  pro-British, pro-choice, pro-labor, pro-environment, pro-communist, anti-Semitic anti-abortion, anti-war, anti-labor, anti-aircraft, anti-social

Most prefixes are usually one word.

co-     

co-author, co-chairman, co-defendent, co-host, co-owner, co-pilot, co-signer, co-star, co-worker  

coed, coeducation, coequal, coexist, *cooperate, *coordinate

non-     

Except when separating a prefix ending in the same letter that begins the root word: non-native, non-nuclear  

(usually one word)

pre-     

Except when prefixes precede proper nouns and dates: pre-Christian, pre-Columbian, pre-K pre-1900  

(usually one word)

post-   

post-bellum, post-mortem (but post office)

(usually one word)

trans-   

trans-American (but transatlantic, transcontinental)

(usually one word)

sub-

Except with double same prefix:  sub-sub paragraph  

(usually one word)

*These two words are exceptions to rule in which a hyphen is used after a prefix that ends in the same vowel that begins the root word.
The table above lists a few examples. For details, please see the AP Stylebook which is available on Amazon or in most public libraries.

 

 

 

SOURCE 3:  American Psychological Association  

Compound words formed with prefixes are mostly "closed" with few exceptions.  (APA97)

PREFIXES HYPHENATED  ONE WORD
PREFIX EXAMPLES   MOST PREFEXES ARE NOT HYPHENATED

mini, multi, non, over, phobia, post, pre, pro, pseudo, quasi, re, semi socio, sub, super, supra, ultra, un, under

 

minisession, multiphase, nonsignificant, overaggressive, agora phobia, quasiperiodic, reevaluate, semidarkness, socioeconomic, subtest, superordinate, supraliminal, ultrahigh, unbiased, underdeveloped

EXCEPTION 1     SECOND ELEMENT IS CAPITALIZED OR MULTIPLE WORDS  

A compound is which the word is capitalized, a number, an abbreviation, more than one word

pro-British, post-911, pre-UCB application, non-native-language-students
 

 
EXCEPTION 2   SELF-  

All self- compounds

self-test, self-motivated, self-esteems
 

 

EXCEPTION 3    CONFUSING HOMONYMS  

Words that could be misunderstood

re-pair/repair; re-form/reform, un-ionized/unionized
 

 

EXCEPTION 4    DOUBLE LETTER SEQUENCE AN EXCEPTION TO THE EXCEPTION

Words in which the prefix ends and the base word begins with the same vowel.
 

meta-analysis, anti-intellectual, co-occur

BUT NOT  RE-   reevaluate

The table above lists a few examples. For details, please see the APA Manualwhich is available on Amazon or in most public libraries.

 

 

 

SOURCE 4:  The Gregg Reference Manual

"In general, do not use a hyphen to set off a prefix at the beginning of a word or a suffix at the end of the word." (§ 833 .a) The Gregg Reference Manual gives a number of details not found in other manuals.  See § 813–848.

PREFIXES HYPHENATED  ONE WORD
PREFIX EXAMPLES   MOST PREFEXES ARE NOT HYPHENATED

after, bi, de, extra, fore, hyper, hypo, il, im, in, inter, micro, macro, mid, mini, mis, mono, multi, non, off, on, out, over, para, poly, post, pre, pro, pseudo, re, retro, semi, sub, super, supra, trans, tri, ultra, un, under, up
 

 

aftertaste, biannual, extralegal, forefront, hypersensitive, hypoallergenic, illegal, infrastructure, interstate, microscopic, macroeconomics, minibike, misspell, monorail, nonessential, offline, online, outsource, posttest, prerequisite, proactive, pseudoname, reorganize, semiannual, subconscious, supercede, ultrasoft, undercut, upstream

EXCEPTION 1     SECOND ELEMENT IS CAPITALIZED OR MULTIPLE WORDS  

When a prefix is followed by a hyphen and an organizational name, respect the organization's preference.

Anti-Defamation League, Anti-Drug Coalition
 

 
EXCEPTION 2    DOUBLE LETTER SEQUENCE AN EXCEPTION TO THE EXCEPTION

834. When the prefix ends with a or i and the base word begins with the same letter (834)
 

ultra-active, intra-abdominal, multi-institutional

835 a. When the prefix ends with e and the base word begins with e, omit the hyphen.  

BUT NOT:  pre-engineered, pre-owned, de-emphasized, de-energized, de-escalate
 

NORMAL USE:  reedit, reemphasize, reenforce, reelect, preempt, preexisting

835 b. When the prefix is co and the base word begins with o, use a hyphen.
 

co-occurence, co-official, co-op, c-opt, co-organizer, co-owner

BUT NOT: coordinate, cooperate, cooperative

EXCEPTION 3   SELF-  

All self compounds

self-test, self-motivated, self-esteems
 

BUT NOT: selfish, selfless, selfness,

EXCEPTION 4    CONFUSING HOMONYMS – RE "again"  

Words with prefix re meaning "again", which are generally not hyphenated, should be hyphenated so that they can be distinguished from other words with the same spelling but a different meaning.

Words that could be misunderstood (§ 834–835)

re-pair re-form, re-act, re-lay, re-press

 

repair, reform, react, relay, repress

 

EXCEPTION 5  (838) BEFORE A CAPITALIZED WORD  

When a prefix is added to a word that begins with a capital letter, use a hyphen after the prefix.

anti-Semitic, pro-Republican, trans-American, mid- April
 

BUT NOT transatlantic, transpacific

EXCEPTION 6   (839) FAMILY TERM: great, in-law  

Use a hyphen after a prefix for the family term great or in-law.

great-grandmother, brother-in-law, great-aunt, great grandchild
 

BUT NOT stepdaughter, grandfather, grandmother, grandchild

EXCEPTION 6   (841–846) MISCELLANEOUS  

quasi + adjective

quasi-judicial, quasi-public

BUT NOT  quasi corporation

after (if it is a preposition in a compound adjective)

after-work party, after-school study group 

BUT NOT  afterlife, aftertaste, afterthought, aftershock

in (if it is a preposition in a compound adjective)

in-flight program, in-depth analysis

BUT NOT insensitive, indecisive, intolerable

mid (in expressions ivolving numbers or capitalized words)

mid-sixties, mid- to upper 70s, mid-Atalntic Ocean

 

off (a few exceptions are hyphenated)

off-color, off-key, off-season, off-white

BUT NOT offhand, offline, offset, offshoot, offshore, offtract
 

The table above lists a few examples. For details, please see the Gregg Reference Manual which is available on Amazon or in most public libraries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyphens - Capitalization

Capitalization of Hyphenated Words in Titles, Headings and Headlines

 

 

 

Variation in Style

There is variation on minor points.  Choose a style and carry it through your writing.  See comparisons in the chart below.

STYLE MANUAL RULES


Commonly Used Rule
(source unknown)


(1) Capitalize the second word in compound words if it is a noun or proper adjective or the words have equal weight (Cross-Reference, Pre-Microsoft Software, Run-Time); (2) Do not capitalize the second word if it is another part of speech or a participle modifying the first word (How-to, Take-off, Flat-sided, Gun-toting).
 

1)  AP   (112)

Headlines: Only the first word and proper nouns (or proper abbreviations) are capitalized. Use numerals for all numbers and single quotes for quotes. Online: AP systems convert headlines to a version with all words capitalized.

Ask the Editor FAQ apstylebook.com
Q: If you have a hyphen in a headline, is the word after the hyphen capitalized?
A: In AP headline style, only the first word and proper nouns are capped.
 

2)  Gregg (360-3)

"In a heading or title, capitalize all the elements except articles (a, an, and the), short prepositions (at, by, for, in, of, off, on, out, to, and up), and short conjunctions (and, as, but, if, or, and nor)."
 

3) MLA  ( 3.2.6 )

MLA style has its own rules for capitalizing headings and titles. “The rules for capitalizing titles are strict. In a title or a subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms” (Gibaldi 103). These are commonly referred to as heading caps. Do not capitalize the following unless they begin or end a title, or follow a colon:  (1) Articles: a, an, the; (2) Prepositions: against, between, in, of , to; (3) Conjunctions: and, but, for, nor, or, so, ye.; (4) Infinitive: to.
 

4a) CMOS–Simple

(367-368)

Capitalize only the first element unless any subsequent element is a proper noun or adjective.
 

4b) CMOSl–Traditional

(1) Always capitalize the first element; (2) Capitalize any subsequent elements unless they are articles, prepositions, coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor)  or such modifiers as flat or sharp following musical key symbol; (3) If the first element is merely a prefix or combining form that could not stand by itself as a word (anti, pre, etc.), do not capitalize the second element unless it is a proper noun or proper adjective; (4) Do not capitalize the second element in a hyphenated spelled-out number (twenty-one, etc); (5)Break a rule when it doesn't work. 
 

 

 

Capitalization comparison of style manuals

GREGG REFERENCE MANUAL AP and CMOS-SIMPLE CMOS-TRADITIONAL
CAPITALIZE FIRST ELEMENT CAPITALIZE FIRST ELEMENT CAPITALIZE FIRST ELEMENT

Cross-Country Skiing

Cross-country Skiing

Cross-Country Skiing

Self-Actualization Workshop

Self-actualization Workshop
 

Self-Actualization Workshop

CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT if not an article, preposition, or conjunction. DO NO CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT if not an article, preposition, conjunction or musical flat

Ever-Present Road Congestion

Ever-present Road Congestion

Ever-Present Road Congestion

President-Elect Barack Obama

President-elect Barack Obama

President-Elect Barack Obama

City-States in Nineteenth Century Europe

City-states in Nineteenth Century Europe

City-States in Nineteenth Century Europe

A Series of Web-Based Courses

A Series of Web-based Courses

A Series of Web-Based Courses

Cutting-Edge Nanotechnology

Cutting-edge Nanotechnology

Cutting-Edge Nanotechnology

Self-Sustaining City of the Future

Self-sustaining City of the Future

*Self-Sustaining City (participles often lowercase)

Full-Fashioned Clothing

Full-fashioned Clothing

Full-Fashioned Clothing    (participles often lowercase)

Over-the-Counter Testing Kits

Over-the-counter Testing Kits

BUT: Over-the-Counter Testing Kits   (article)

Bread-and-Butter Basics

Bread-and-butter Basics

BUT: Bread-and-Butter Basics  (conjunction)

E-Flat Minor Melody

E-flat Minor Melody
 

BUT: E-flat Minor Melody; (flat – sharp)

CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT if a proper noun or proper adjective.   CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT if a proper noun or proper adjective.  

Franco-American Studies Center

Franco-American Studies Center

Franco-American Studies Center

Anti-American Protestors Storm Embassy 

Anti-American Protestors Storm Embassy 

Anti-American Protestors Storm Embassy  

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

BUT: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

BUT: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Treatments

Pro-Reagan Viewpoints  (proper noun)

Pro-Reagan Viewpoints  (proper noun)

Pro-Reagan Viewpoints  (proper noun)

Pro-life Viewpoints (Hyphenate when coining words that denote support for something.) 

BUT: Prolife Viewpoints (closed in Chicago Manual; hyphenated in AP)

BUT: Prolife Viewpoints (not a proper noun)

CAPITALIZE SECOND ELEMENT   including numbers. DO NOT CAPITALIZE  a spelled out number (21-99).   DO NOT CAPITALIZE  a spelled out number (21-99).  

Fifty-Piece Orchestra Plays Sold-out Hall

Fifty-piece Orchestra Plays Sold-out Hall

Fifty-Piece Orchestra Plays Sold-out Hall

Fifty-One Violinists Compete for Title

Fifty-one Violinists Compete for Title

BUT: Fifty-one Violinists Compete (spelled number) 

    BREAK RULES  if a consistent look is needed.

 

 

*Twenty-First-Century Furnishings ("first" if lowercase, would look inconsistent)

*Hand-me-downs  (lowercase short unstressed elements)

*Write-ins and Cross-outs  (lowercase short unstressed elements)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

Micro-Chip to Track HIV-Postive Residents (not micro-chip)

Non-Native Speakers of English

SOLUTION

Microchip to Track HIV-Postive Residents (microchip is one word)

Nonnative Speakers of English
(CMOS does not hyphenate most prefixes.)

Non-Native Speakers of English
(OK if using AP hyphenation rules and Traditional Chicago Manual capitalization rules.) 

 

Before capitalizing words in a title or headline, check in the dictionary to see if a word should be hyphenated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Punctuation Notes

Hyphens

Advanced

 

 

BRIEF MENTION DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS

Also see:

AP Style Book 329 "Punctuation: hyphen"

APA  4.13 "Hyphenation"

Burchfield 370 "Hyphens"

MLA 3.2.6 "Hyphens"

Swan 559 "spelling (4): hyphens"

Hyphens in the Gregg Reference Manual
"Some compound words are written as solid words, some are written as separate words, and some are hyphenated. As in other areas of style, authorities do not agree on the rules.…The only a complete guide is an up-to-date dictionary…

Compound Words  (Sabin 811–48)
Word Division (Sabin 901–923)

 

Hyphens and Dashes in the Chicago Manual of Style 6.80–6.85.

Compounds  (6.81)
To separate characters (6.82)

 

 

Print Resources

 

Style Manual Abbreviations (used in this website)

 

Online Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Learning Online

Learning online

 

 

 

Read for Errors

A web based course is a convenient way to learn a new subject. Students can participate in self paced learning. Courses, such as micro biology, economics, accounting and journalism, are being offered online. Most non native speakers benefit from taking hybrid courses that are half of the time online and half of the time on campus. Rather than sit in a two hour long class, students can study at their convenience.

Students simply need an Internet connected computer and a modern computer system. It also helpf sto have a pro technology attitude to using a computer in the online course. Being able to read well on screen is very important.  Both long and first time users will hae great online learning opportunities.

online – appears mostly as one word but occasionally as a hyphenated word

 

 

 

Complete the sentence with a what-clause.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom, or click the "Check" button to the left  as you go.

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Capitalizing Headlines

Newspaper Headlines

 

 

Read for Errors

  • Eighteen Year Old Held in Shooting Death
  • Anti Same Sex Marriage Activists Demonstrate at Capitol
  • Woman Hit While Riding Three Wheel Bike
  • Cuban Made Cigars Found at Crime Scene
  • Pro American Business Environment Found in Japan
  • Anti Itch Cream Removed from Store Shelves
  • Re Establishing Our Immage Abroad
  • Vice President Biden Will Travel to California
  • President Elect Obama Will Speak in New York
  • Twenty Five Students Received Awards
  • HIV Test Available Over The Counter
  • Knock Down drag out Movie is a Hit
  • Richmond San Rafael Bridge Accident
  • Young Man's Twenty First Birthday Bash Is a Bust
  • Concerto in C Sharp Minor a Major Success

a bust – an event interrupted by police

knock-down-drag-out – characterized by violence

over the counter – without a prescription from or visit to a doctor

 

 

 

 

 

Capital or Lowercase

  1. Select a correct way to capitalize each headline. 
  2. Use the traditional rules from the Chicago Manual of Style above. (CMOS 8.170) 
  3. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" buttons as you go, or the "Check 11-25" at the end.

 

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