Present Perfect In Context
Identifying Present Perfect Tense
Tower of Pisa Gets a New Lean on Life
PISA, Italy - When the tower was closed to the public a decade ago, officials said it would be open again in just a few years. The ambitious plan to stop the tower's increasing tilt has taken far longer than expected, but officials say it is succeeding.
Engineers are working on a complex project to stabilize, but not totally straighten, the 58-meter (189-foot) bell tower, which was leaning five meters (16 feet) from the vertical at the start of the latest stabilization work in 1998. Giant steel braces were applied to protect the 150,000-ton tower during excavation designed to take it fractionally back toward the upright.
The lean has been gradually reduced. On Saturday, the tower was tilting 14 centimeters less (5.6 inches) than in January, said Edda Stagno, a spokeswoman for the project. The goal is to reduce the tilt by about 45 centimeters (18 inches) and restore the marble masterpiece to its angle of 300 years ago. "Then we'll be set for the next two-and-a-half centuries," spokeswoman Edda Stagno said.
Project officials hope to have the work finished next spring. When they do, the monument will lean less than it did in 1700 -- enough to stabilize it, but not enough for the naked eye to detect.
The tower is built on a spongy subsoil in an area known as the Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles). It was started in 1173 as a belfry for the nearby cathedral and has been leaning to the south since its third story was added in 1274. It was completed in 1350.
The experts warn that even when the tower reopens, visitors might not be allowed in regularly. "The monument might hardly sustain the millions of tourists who would flock to it every year," warned a member of the experts' committee, Giorgio Macchi, pointing out how past visitors have worn down the stairs.
Only a handful of people have been inside since the tower was closed to tourists in 1990.
4. Does this sentence use the present perfect tense?
No, it has similar looking words: "have" and "finished", but it is not present perfect.
"Project officials hope to have the work finished next spring."
These are similar "have" expressions that mean to employ a service.
I had the table wiped. (means = I had (someone) do a service. Result: the table was wiped)
I had the car washed.
I had the house re-roofed.
I had the computer repaired.
Officials hope to have the work finished. (employing a construction crew)