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Practices and Exercises for Grammar & Writing

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Indian Ocean route

The jet is believed flew to the southern Indian Ocean.

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Expand your comprehension of English grammar through contrastive analysis, pictures, diagrams, current event stories, self-quizzes, and editing practices. Originally written for intermediate non-native speakers, Grammar-Quizzes now includes practices for native speakers.   Grammar points are listed both by grammar term and by word on this index page. This site is available to instructors and their students without charge and is supported by Google Ads. Please feel free to contact me if you encounter difficulty loading a page, find an error, or have a suggestion.  Contact Info, Social Activity, Navigation Options, English/ESL Links – Last updated   .

Index of Practices

Adjectives and Modifiers

a summary of practices for adjectives and modifiers
adjective and modifier diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
putting adjectives in natural sounding word order: a big, new, shiny, red wagon, a white and tan, Persian cat.
forming adjectives from other word forms:-al, -ary, -ful, -ic, ical, -ish, -less, -like, -ly, -ous, -y, -able, -ant, -ive
verbs followed by adjectives with resultive states; object complements: wash X clean, wipe X dry, get X ready
quantities and adverbs: two feet high / tall / long; color modifiers:moss green, emerald green
using numbers as modifiers to nouns: a five-course meal, a six-step ladder
using nouns as modifiers:  soup spoon, door bell,
agent vs. receiver: amused vs. amusing,-ed vs. -ing endings
ongoing vs. completed:a roasting vs. roasted chicken; -ed vs. -ing endings
gerund or participle: testing a word form's function
auto-correcting quiz: surprised vs. surprising, aged vs. aging
describing similarities and differences: the same, alike, unlike, different from, similar to
comparing the similarity of two items: the same (noun) as, as (adj / adv) as
comparing the quality of two items or the manner of two actions: more, less, -er ,than
indicating the unique quality of an item in a group or unique manner of an action: most, least, -est, of all, ever
increasing the amount of something: much, more, too, many more and much more
decreasing the amount of something: fewer, less, count, non count nouns
RELATED PAGE: two things vary together: the bigger, the better, the fewer, the lesser, the greater
RELATED PAGE: adjectives without nouns: the poor, the young, the restless, the former, the latter, the English, the Japanese

Adverbs

a summary practices for adverbs
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
using modifiers to other words; words modified by adverbs and word order
Telling how something is done: uses, word forms, spellings, adverb list; happily, lengthwise,,well, hard, early
putting words in natural sounding word; He will silently turn away. He will turn away silently.
telling when an action happens: aspects of time; present, past, future, present perfect, progressive; next week
telling how often an action happens: usually, often, frequently, occasionally, rarely, hardly ever, never
expressing movement in a particular direction: out, out of, outside, behind, back, backward, etc..
intensifiers, modifying verbs, adverbs and adjectives: rather, extremely, totally; so, such, too, very, enough
drawing attention to information: also, just, only, even, really, mostly, mainly, neither–nor, either–or
emphasizing unexpected or extraordinary details: even, indeed, in fact, even / even though / even if
deciding on adverb placement when auxiliary verbs are present; word order options, variations based of adverb type
expressing attitude about a situation; evaluative adjuncts; attitude stance adverbials: fortunately, hopefully, sadly
truth or belief about a situation; modal adjuncts, epistemic stance adverbials: possibly, evidently, likely, actually
truth or belief about a situation; modal adjuncts, epistemic stance adverbials: possibly, evidently, likely, actually
conditions under which something is being said; style stance adverbials: frankly, confidentially, briefly, in short
indicating a relationship between two clauses: finally, namely, consequently, alternatively, incidentally

Adjective Clauses  See Modifying Clauses

Agreement

a summary of practices for sentence agreement
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
forming nouns from other word forms; nominalization:-ment, -al, -ure, -tion, - ance, -ence
plural noun markers ending in -S: -s, -es, -ies, -ves
plural noun markers with other endings: -ee-, -en, -oes, -a, -ae, -ices, -i; varieties: fish vs. fishes
plurals of hyphenated words, letters and numbers: passers-by, As and Bs, 747s, cc's and bcc's, no-no's
with irregular plural suffixes: -i, oes, -a, -es, -ves
third person agreement: spelling patterns, irregular forms: final -s. -es, -oes, -ies
recognizing unusual singular or plural forms– exceptions; irregular agreement: English is vs. the English are 
editing nouns and verbs for final -S / -ES: Listening for final -s  [s] / [z] in words (audio Final S sounds)
referring to mass nouns or units: determiners; money vs. dollars, coins, cents  (the, this, that, these, those) 
referring to items collectively:  equipment – computers; candy – candy bars
sentences with group (mass) nouns vs. items in the group: information:details; advice: suggestions
a, the, this, that, my, our, some, any, all, each, every, either, neither, none, such, which
indicating how much or how many: some of, all of, the/a number of, none, neither...nor
indicating an indefinite quantity or number: some, any
indicating quantity for count and noncount nouns much, many, so much, so many, much more, many more
indicating an insufficient amount: little, a little, few, a few
referring to specific amounts: slice, cup, stick, bottle, spoonful ; pig - pork; calf–veal
subject-verb agreement when modifiers come between; The silly looking monkey under the bananas is hiding.
indicating possession for people or groups: girl's vs. girls'
top 20 agreement errors: Everyone is;  two percent is; two-thirds of the book(s) is/are
editing for articles, pronouns and singular-plural agreement
using agreement within an essay
Identifying subject-verb agreement
RELATED PAGE: a review of Azar's Understanding and Using English agreement chapters
RELATED SECTION: personal, indefinite, and possessive pronoun agreement

Articles

a summary of practices for articles
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
referring to one as an example of all
referring to one in particular;
blending article sounds before nouns
Making generalizations about the group
stating typical characteristics and behavior; the lion vs. a lion
referring to all vs. a specific, identified one; People (all)/ The people (specific)
referring to an already known noun
in a city: the fire department, the doctor, the police department
identified by information after the noun
a noun identified by other means-uniqueness, name, or shared knowledge
referring to a person from a country (Demonyms – nouns and adjectives)
adjectives without nouns: the poor, the young, the restless, the unemployed, the latter, the English
The Statue of Liberty, The Golden Gate Bridge
The San Joaquin Valley
The Republic of China, the Netherlands, the United Arab Emirates
referring to a quantity of an unspecific or specific group
referring to one more or the rest
unidentified - the identified (indefinite-definite)
many ways in which nouns can be identified (definite)
wars, eras, dates, worlds events
stating a unique degree of a noun; the best movie, the worst acting
using definite and indefinite markers:;The,  A, no marker  Sentence editing
sentence wording; discussing in general or specifically
a restaurant review; fill the blanks in with articles
FOR PRINT: "Article Summary" print (PDF)
"Generic Articles" print (PDF)
"Articles in Context" print (PDF)

Conditional & Hypothetical Tenses

a summary of practices for conditionals
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
stating present facts and future predictions under specific conditions: if, will, can, be going to, should, happen
stating present and past habits and customs under specific conditions; hypothetical statements: if, whenever
stating strategy with hypothetical statements; if, could, might, would
analyzing with hypothetical statements; if, had had, would have
analyzing an accident: if, could have, would have
late advice: analyzing past options and determining importance; should have, could have
hypothetical situations in mixed time frames: If you had fed the dog, she wouldn't be hungry now.
a real or unreal situation? If he has time, Jack will/ would cut the grass.
expressing wishes, regrets, upset, lost opportunity: wish, wish vs. if only!
tense agreement in conditional statements: My father wished I had gone / would go.
expressing conditions for desirable outcomes: if, unless, otherwise, only if vs. If only
stating a condition vs. an alternative: if, whether
giving advice in hypothetical situations; rephrasing an if-clause: had, should, were
stating a conditioned vs. a precautionary action in the event, in case and should

Confusing Word Pairs

a summary of practices for confusing word pairs
Is the action one of approving or rejecting?
Is it an influence or an outcome?
Is it “one more" or “the rest"?
Is is a moral or social error?
Is it an expected or unexpected outcome?
Is it a time with duration or an exact time?
Are you emphasizing something or stating an unexpected outcome?
Are you decreasing the amount of a count or noncount noun?
Is it a quantity of time or a specific time?
Are you referring to distance or "more"?
Is it a conditioned action or a precaution?
Is it a regretful wish or a particular condition?
Will the desired outcome be favorable or unfavorable?
Is it a condition or an alternative?
Who is lying down – the subject or the object?
Are you comparing something to a noun or to a clause?
Is the quantity a “count" or a “noncount" noun?
Is it not tight or gone?
Is the action creating or performing?
Is the quantity or number for an unspecific or specific group?
Is it a quantity for a count or a noncount noun?
Are you increasing the amount of a count or noncount noun?
Who/What is rising  – the subject or the object?
Are you quoting or reporting?
Who/What is sitting – the subject or the object?
Are you stating purpose or emphasizing the quality of something?
Is it a quantity  in a positive or a negative sentence?
Is it location, existence or possession? their, there, they're, there's, theirs
Is it a former habit or a habit you are becoming accustomed to?
Is it a simultaneous activity of short or long duration?
RELATED / PAGE: two-word verbs–do up, get up, give up, go after, have over, let on, look up, make over, etc.

Connectors / Connectives (Prepositions / Conjunctions / Coordinators / Adverbials)

a summary of practices for connectors, conjunctions and transition words
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
joining words, phrases and clauses with coordinating conjunctions; for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
joining sentence elements and sentences; and, as well as, and also, In addition, moreover, furthermore, besides
shortening a repeated verb in a joined clause:  and so do I, and I do too, but I don't; tag-questions: don't I?
adding a positive or negative comment: and too, and not either, but not too
joining sentence elements with paired conjunctions; both...and, either... or, not only...but also, neither...nor, (or else)
stating contrast or contrary outcome; but, but still, while, whereas, in contrast to, yet, even so
stating an exception: but not, but for, nothing but, all but, except, except for, cannot help, cannot but, cannot help but
expressing defeat versus challenge; implied meanings; but vs. though
comparative preference; would rather than, rather than ( X and not Y), (X to avoid Y)
using adverbial prepositional phrases to introduce “cause"; because vs. because of ; though vs. in spite of
indicating reason or method; because of, by, with
indicating a causal relationship; consequently, therefore, as a result, for this reason, due to
expected and unexpected outcomes; because, though
expressing a cause and effect relationship; because, since, consequently, therefore, as a result, so 
shortening cause-effect clauses:  because, same-time, earlier time
emphasizing qualities and characteristics;  so . . . that  & such . . . that
expressing purpose, cause-effect, or result;   so that,  so... that
indicating time-relative activities: before, after, as soon as, when, while, as
indicating same-time activities: when, while
indicating a future completion time: future perfect: by the time
reducing a time-relative clause: when, while, before, after, since, upon
conjunctions, adverbs, and transition words; addition, alternative, cause-effect, comparison, condition, contrast, emphasis
finding conjunction, adverb and transition word errors; but, even, not only, because
: using cause and effect connectors; main cause, as a result, because
joining like items with and and but; My English is improving slowly but surely.
correcting connector use: connectors, transitions, sentence boundaries and punctuation

Diagnostic Quizzes

a summary of practices for diagnostic tests
Adjective and modifier diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Adverb diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Sentence agreement diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Article usage diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Conditional clause diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Connector diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Gerund diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Infinitive diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Modal diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Modifying clause (adjective clause) diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Nominal clause (noun clause) diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Passive diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Past tense diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Preposition diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Present perfect tense diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Present tense diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Pronoun diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
Punctuation diagnostic for identifying specific grammar points that need review
INT-ADV: modifying nouns with clauses (adjective clauses) multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz
INT-ADV: expressing mood with modals; multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz,
INT-ADV: embedding clauses as the subject or object of a clause, multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz
INT-ADV: modifying nouns with participial modifiers, multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz on using participles as modifiers
INT-ADV: changing speech to indirect speech (reported speech) multiple choice,  auto-correcting quiz
ADVANCED:  Sentence examples that focus on the improvement of word choice in English

Gerunds

a summary of content for gerunds
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
referring to activities; parallel phrasing, bulleted lists, spelling adding  -ing
expressing attitudes about activities
commenting on activities; insisted on going ; looking forward to seeing
expressing attitudes about activities;  excused him for leaving; excused his leaving; thanked him for giving
gerund or participle: testing a word form's function
stating means and methods;  by followed by a gerund, with followed by a noun
stating function by verb+ing, for verb+ing, to+verb
stating activities: about, against, after, before, by, for, from instead of, without
stating observations, perceptions; see, hear, find, catch, watch, sit, stand, have difficulty, etc.
verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives
verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives
gerund clause as object of the prepositional phrase: about, against, after, for, etc.
gerund clause as object of the prepositional phrase: put off doing, keep from hearing, etc.
gerund clause as object of the prepositional phrase
means or method
using similar word forms in a series
expressing timing and voice in infinitive and gerund clauses

Infinitives

a summary of practices for infinitives
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
referring to activities, quotes and definitions; to be or not to be
expressing intent and wishes; hope, wish, like, expect
getting other people to do things; persuade, intend, ask, have, do, let, make
imposing one's will on others; advised, order, command, expect
expressing how much is needed; it takes X + infinitive
stating minimum and maximum requirements; too, enough
expressing feelings and reactions; happy to see; amazed to find
expressing opinion; It's difficult, easy, important, impossible to…
stating purpose: in order to
identifying infinitives in an article
expressing timing and voice in infinitive and gerund clauses
RELATED PAGE: identifying verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives
RELATED PAGE: identifying verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives 
RELATED PAGE: optimizing adverb placement; the split infinitive argument

Modals

a summary of practices for modals
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
expressing degrees of certainty: will, may, might could, may have, might have
expressing intent vs. prediction: be going, will
expressing determination, refusal and failure: will, would, would have, won't, wouldn't; lexical verb: will
stating preference, request, habit or excuse: would, would have, would rather have
expressing expectation, convention or advice: should, will be, supposed to, ought to, should have
offering options and advice  should, should have, could, could have
late advice: analyzing past options and determining importance; should have, could have
expressing advisability and necessity; should, ought to, should have, must, had to, needed to
making guesses, inferences and conclusions: might have vs. must have
expressing physical, mental and potential ability: can, could, be able to
requesting permission and offering suggestions: may, can, could, would, shall, let's
expressions w/ future interpretations; will be doing, is going to be doing; can be doing
back shifting tense in an embedded clause; will, would, be-going-to, so that, said that, which, who, if ... then
making predictions: will finish, will have finished
meanings in present and past tense;  will/would, shall/should, can/could, may/might, must/had to
expressing mood and meaning with modals; possibility, suggestion, ability, advice, necessity, conclusion
using modals in sentences;multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz
comparing relative events; future perfect, past perfect with modals
late advice: analyzing past options and determining importance; should have, could have

Modifying Clauses (Relative Clauses / Adjective Clauses)

a summary of practices for adjective clauses, relative clauses, modifying clauses
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
adding a descriptive clause for an inanimate noun ; that
adding a descriptive clause for an animate noun
adding descriptive information for possessive nouns: whose
adding possessive clauses (inanimate):  of which, with, that, whose
adding descriptive information for time or place: when, where and in/on/at which
using an indefinite pronoun to add a modifying clause: whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however
using a quantity phrase to add a modifying clause:  all of which / some of whom
adding a modifying clause for identifying which noun; restrictive vs. non-restrictive; that, which
restrictive vs. nonrestrictive clauses; using commas
using which to modify an entire clause; which (all of the preceding clause) vs. that (preceding noun)
shortening a relative clause with a be verb form: [who is] living
shortening a relative clause with an active verb form: [who lives] living
improving placement and reference: Being a guy, it is hard to understand her.
modifying clauses for possessives and quantifiers: whose, some of whose 
RELATED: reducing a clause with a passive verb to a participial clause: was located / located
RELATED: reducing a clause with a passive or active verb to a participial clause: served as / serving as  
RELATED PAGE: Review of chapter 13 in Azar v.3 “Understanding and Using English Grammar"

Nominal Clauses (Noun Clauses / Reported Speech / Indirect Speech)

a summary of practices for embedded-questions, statements, and commands (reported speech)
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
changing wh- questions to reported speech; tense agreement  She asked me how I was.
changing questions answered by yes or no to reported speech;  She asked me if I was sick.
changing commands to reported speech  (subjunctive verb form)
changing statements to reported speech (quoted speech); same vs. earlier -time agreement; deictic words: here/there
other words for reported speech; formal vs. informal agreement; stated, reported, responded…
a content clause as subject; That he is still here is a miracle.
shifting focus to another sentence part; It is a miracle that he is here still .
shifting focus to another sentence part; What he said is that he is still here.
expressions for specifying a reason; the reason is, the reason why, the reason is because
multiple choice; auto-correcting quiz
multiple choice; auto-correcting quiz
RELATED PAGE: Chapter 12 review: noun clauses
RELATED PAGE: imposing one's will(subjunctive); order, command, expect; We advised him to leave.

Passive

a summary of practices for passives
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
changing the object to the subject of the sentence; I was born,we were helped, they were seen
focusing on the collective work rather than the team; The human genome has been mapped.
deciding when to include the “agent"; The bank was robbed by the 'hoodie thief' / by someone
placing emphasis on the item or the recipient of the action; I was sent a letter / A letter was sent to me.
intransitive and stative verbs with no passive voice: happen, occur, remain, exist, belong, stand, become
using get in place of be in passive sentences: I got hit, got lost, got married, got it done, got myself dressed
describing someone or something as the cause or the receiver of an emotion;  amused vs. amusing; -ed vs. -ing endings
describing things with adjectives indicating ongoing versus completed states a roasting  vs. roasted chicken; -ed vs. -ing
multiple choice, auto-correcting quiz on using participles as modifiers
describing emotional reactions; interested in, surprised at, worried about, overwhelmed with,
review of verb + preposition phrases: known for; concerned with; accustomed to
reducing a clause with a passive verb to a participial clause: was located / located
reducing a clause with a passive or active verb to a participial clause: served as / serving as  
contrast the sounds/words; been and being; he's being seen by the doctor, he's been seen.
identifying passive sentences in the context of an article

Past

a summary of practices for past and past perfect tenses
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
reporting past activities or events; short–long duration verbs; did, talked, ate, spoke
temporary past activities and setting background information; was/were doing, was/were talking,
past behavior vs. habits, past states of possession, mind, being; would visit, used to go
telling source or emotional impact;  Where did you get that?
reporting a past series of events; He came in, sat down, and ate.
contrasting earlier events from later events; past adverbs: He had lived in Italy before he moved here. before, after
practice using irregular verb forms:  awake - lay
practice using irregular verb forms:  let - wear

 

Pop Questions

an index of the archives from 2008 to 2012.
Archive 2012: an index of the year's pop questions.
Archive 2011: an index of the year's pop questions.
Archive 2010: an index of the year's pop questions.
Archive 2009: an index of the year&'s pop questions.
Archive 2008: an index of the year's pop questions.

Prepositions

a summary of practices for prepositions
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
relating when: in, on, at
relating where in, on, at, aside, beneath, among, etc.
using preposition of time and place: in, on, at
expressions with: at, in
expressing duration vs. exact time: during, in
Indicating a quantity of time vs. a specific time: for, since
using two-word verb expressions: go about, go at, go away, go down, go off, go on, go out of, go over, go with.
using a preposition at the end of the sentence: question, passive and infinitive structures; phrasal verbs
RELATED PAGES: expressing movement in a particular direction: out, out of, outside, behind, back, backward, etc.
RELATED PAGES: verbs followed by a gerund clause; expressing attitudes about activities; He hates going out.  He dislikes smoking.
RELATED PAGES: verbs followed by a prepositional phrase with a gerund clause as 'the object'; insisted on going ; looking forward to seeing then again
RELATED PAGE: expressing the subject of a gerund clause with pronoun + for : we excused him for leaving; excused his leaving; thanked him for giving
RELATED PAGE: describing emotional reactions; interested in, surprised at, amused with, divorced from, ashamed of, accustomed to, based on
RELATED PAGE: matching the preposition to the verb (verb+ prep combinations) : about, against, after, for, etc.
RELATED PAGE: matching the preposition to the verb (verb+ prep combinations): put off doing, keep from hearing, etc.
RELATED PAGE: matching the preposition to the verb (verb+ prep combinations): from, in, like, of, off, on, over, to, with
RELATED PAGE: known for; concerned with; accustomed to 

Present and Present Progressive Tenses

a summary of practices for present and present progressive tenses
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
referring to occurrences in nature; stating facts vs. making observations: turns vs. is turning
talking about weather;  El Niño: is happens, comes, comes, drops
indicating temporary activities; am, is, am working, am taking, am having  
referring to current activities – temporary vs. permanent; are preparing, are celebrating
referring to a temporary habit or something happening at the moment; is jogging / is listening; is studying/ is taking classes
 referring to planned activities and events; the exhibition returns / is returning / will return
 referring to something in existence or its change in state of existence; is, looks, seems, appears, resembles, becomes, gets, acts
indicating sensations and perceptions; hear, see, sounds, tastes, feels
indicating thinking, cognition and attitude; knows, believes, thinks, understands, recognizes, remembers, etc.
indicating possession or ownership; have, belong, possess, own, hold
expressing emotional states; surprise, impress, please, astonish, amaze
 referring to measurement, weight, distance, height and count; measures, reaches, weighs, consists of, contains, includes, etc.
indicating the relative time of two planned events: before, after, as soon as, while, when, as soon as
narrating or story telling; "This guy walks into a bar.."
verbs that take or do not take objects; rise, raise, sit, set, lie, lay, agrees, hugs, breaks, studies, leaves, weighs
indicating receivers of actions; me, to me, for me  (dative verbs)
identifying present tense verbs 
RELATED PAGE: make/do, say/tell, lie/lay, rise/raise, sit/set
RELATED PAGE:intransitive and stative verbs with no passive voice: happen, occur, remain, exist, belong, stand, become
RELATED PAGE:indicating time-relative activities: before, after, as soon as, when, while, as

Present Perfect Tense

a summary of practices for present perfect tense
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
expressing duration:  for, since, so far, to date
expressing continuous vs. reoccurring activity: several times
expressing long- or short-term activity: since, ever since, for, this morning, all morning
expressing to an activity in the unspecified past: ever, never, before; short answers: yes, I have / no, I haven't
expressing to an activity in the unspecified past vs. in progress: (using no adverb)
relating the past to the present time frame: recently, just, lately
happening sooner or later than expected; already, yet
using adverb clues to understanding meaning
connecting the past to the present; He's just arrived. We've been there recently.
matching verb tense and adverbs: up to now, so far, since, this year, in my life; last year, yesterday, then
matching verb tense with adverbs
RELATED PAGE:Indicating a quantity of time vs. a specific time
RELATED PAGE:practice using irregular verb forms:  awake - lay
RELATED PAGE:practice using irregular verb forms:  let - wear

Pronouns

a summary of practices for pronouns
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
referring to people: he, she, we, they — him, her, us, them
referring to groups or individuals; The Scouts value its rules / their people.
referring to two personal nouns;  me and my dad / my dad and I
using agreement with possessive pronouns: everyone has his / their hat; gender neutral phrasing
referring to oneself; referring to all or part: myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves
indicating ownership: his, hers, ours, theirs; generalizations: one-one's, you-your (impersonal) they-their
referring to the existence of something; there is a lot of traffic
referring to weather, time, or existence; It is late, It is noon
referring back to something; emphasis, former, latter; it this / that
making noun reference clear;  He was hungry, Jack decided.
referring to both male and females; Everyone has his vs. their hat.

Punctuation

a summary of practices for punctuation
a diagnostic quiz for identifying specific grammar points that need review
marking contractions and possessive nouns
punctuating items in vertical lists; parallel phrasing, introductory phrases, colons, semicolons, periods, capitals
deciding how to phrase and punctuate a vertical list
using upper and lowercase letters
explaining or illustrating; introductory phrases, time and proportions, mail, email, book citations, chapter, verse 
separating and setting of elements in a sentence: punctuating clauses and sentences with commas
separating elements in a sentence; Word Play – clarifying word form meaning with punctuation: commas
inserting a comment within a sentence; commas, parentheses and dashes, appositives
setting elements of from the rest of the sentence; aside comments, lists, after thoughts
and capitalization in headings:  linking words to clarify meaning; capitalization of hyphenated words in titles and headlines
including titles of major works, and other terms in your writing
adding explanation and clarification to sentences
marking sentence ends, abbreviations and decimals; a.m. / AM, p.m. / PM
marking quoted speech, titles of minor works and terms; ellipsis
punctuating joined phrases semicolons, commas, colons
 COMMAS IN CLAUSES:
Using a comma with a so (result) but not with so that (purpose)
Using commas with coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Using a comma to mark a word order change
Using a comma with a conditional sentence
Using a comma with an adverb of emphasis - even
Using a comma with a non-restrictive clause
Using a comma with a clause to include “all" or “some"; restrictive vs. non-restrictive
Using a comma with which to refer to a whole sentence instead of just one word

Reported Speech (Nominal Clauses)

Review

a summary of practices for review practices
Chapter review of singular-plural agreement (follows Azar v.3 text chapters)
Chapter review of noun clauses 
Chapter review of adjective clauses 
Chapter review of adverbials and other miscellaneous words and phrases
Chapter review of sentence connectors and coordinators
Chapter review of conditional and hypothetical sentences  

Sentence Structure

a summary of practices for sentence structure and sentence diagramming
including a topic and a controlling idea; stream of consciousness; a spoken vs. written sentence
identifying basic elements in a sentence; subject and modifiers, predicate, verb, adverbial modifiers
verbs and clauses  (Advanced); inflected v. noninflected (reduced) verbs, nonfinite clauses, tree diagrams
expressing timing and voice in infinitive and gerund clauses
distinct properties (Advanced) ; NICE properties: negation, inversion, code and emphasis, BE  & modals verbs
Identifying larger elements in a sentence: phrase, dependent clause, independent clause, fragment, sentence–spoken/written
identifying simple and compound sentences: coordinating conjunctions, semicolons 
shifting focus to another sentence part; it-clauses, what-clauses, that-clauses (clefts and pseudo-clefts)

Writing

a summary of practices for writing and composition
foundation work for writing (pyramid)
selecting a reasonable amount as a topic
creating your thesis sentence
writing four types
ethics and fair use; giving credit to other people's work
strategies for avoiding plagiarism
identifying plagiarized work from an example paragraph
What is MLA Style? Examples of in-text and bibliographic citations; resources
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Book: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Magazine: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Journal: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Newspaper: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Web: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Music: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
MLA Citation Drag & Drop – Film: practice arranging elements into proper citation order
separating fact from fiction; resources

Contact Information and Links

Resources/Bibliography  | ESL Links

Thank you! Julie Sevastopoulos    Contact / Bio / Site information page

 

Previously, this web site was named “Grammar Check"  when it resided on the San Mateo Community College District server from November 1998 - April 2008.  In May of 2008, it was renamed “Grammar-Quizzes" (an available domain name) and moved to its current host server (May 2008 – present).