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And / In addition

Joining sentence elements and clauses

Dancers
 

 

Joining Elements vs. Sentences

AND  — CONJUNCTION / COORDINATOR

And, and also, and as well as join two sentence elements, such as two nouns, two verbs, two adjectives, two phrases or two  clauses (two same word forms).  When and connects two sentence elements, no comma is used.  When three or more elements are joined, a comma is used.

Anne is an actress.  Normally, she acts and sings.   (verbs)

Anne loves dance and also music (nouns)

She will compete in ballroom and also modern dance.  (adjectives)

She must dance gracefully and precisely in order to win.  (adverbs)

She must follow the rules as well as use good dance technique (verb phrases)

The judges want her both to extend and to point her toes.  (phrases)

Anne is a woman who not only³ knows her strengths but also who will give her best effort.    (clauses)

IN ADDITION — LINKING ADVERB

In addition, additionally and also are linking adverbs that indicate a relationship between two clauses.  [They are also called conjunctive adverbs or transition words.]  These words transition the reader or listener from the main idea in one clause to the related idea in the next clause.

Anne and Alex act and sing.  In addition, they dance.

Anne and Alex are very graceful dancers.  Also¹, they have years of experience dancing together.

Anne and Alex will learn samba and cha cha.  Additionally, they will try the merengue.

She must dance gracefully.  In addition, she must dance precisely.

She must follow the rules. Also, she must use proper dance technique. 

The judges want her to extend her arms.  Additionally, they expect her to point her toes.

Alex is a man who knows his strengths. And² he will give his best effort. 

 

¹Also is less formal than in addition (to) or additionally.

²AndWhat grammarians have to say about using "and" at the beginning of a sentence

extend (v.) — stretch, draw out to full length

graceful (adj.) — having elegance or beauty of form

³Not only…but  (paired coordinators) See Both and

Related pages: And so / too / also,  FANBOYS   Parallel Phrasing, Adv for Linking  Comma–series

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conjunctions and Coordinators

Addition vs. Conclusive Fact

 

 

 

Adding One More  vs. a Final Fact

ADDITION

And, and also, as well as, in addition, additionally and also link a clause with additional information.

Anne would like to play a dramatic role. Also, she thinks it would be fun to try comedy. (informal)

Alex has acted on Broadway (stage) and television.  In addition, he has acted in three movies. (very formal)

Beside(s) having several dance competitions, Alex and Anne have family obligations.

Alex and Anne have to focus on their practices as well as² their auditions.  (on top of, along with)

For now, Alex and Anne are taking it easy in addition to postponing their touring plans. 

CONCLUSIVE FACT

Furthermore, moreover and besides link a clause with a final fact in order to make a point and/or to support an argument.

In my opinion,  Anne would be excellent in that movie.  She has done several dramatic roles and has lots of experience. Furthermore, she looks like the character in the book.  (very formal)

I think Alex is the best choice. He has acted on Broadway and on television; moreover, he has played supporting roles in three movies.  (very formal)

Alex and Anne won't be able to dance in the international competition in Rio de Janeiro.  They are too busy.  Besides¹, they can't get a visa in time. 

Alex and Anne have to focus on their practices and auditions.  They can't take time off to travel.  Another thing is³, they have family obligations. (informal)   

Alex and Anne aren't traveling now. In fact,  Anne is expecting a baby and has been advised not to travel.

 

¹Besides, — What is more, (informal)
²as well ason top of (infornal), along with (informal),
³Another thing is — (informal, but commonly used);  See The reason is + clause  
audition (n.) — to try out for a part, give a short performance to see if the person is good for the part
conclusive fact (adj) — showing that something is definitely true
role (n.) — acting part in a play, opera, or ballet

 See   Using semicolons   Linking Adverbs  In fact / Indeed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introductory Phrases (Transition Words)

Conjunctive vs. Linking Adverbs

 

 

 

Adding more details vs. a stand-alone detail 

ADDING DETAILS

An introductory phrase with besides, in addition to, along with expresses that we are mentioning, but setting aside, an important detail, in order to mention more details.  ("conjunctive adverb")

PREP PHRASE MAIN CLAUSE

Besides being funny,

he is also young and smart. (information)

Along with enjoying what they do,

they spend a lot of time together. (information)

In addition to work,

they plan time to relax. (information)

Along with a promotion, 

They received several job offers.(information)

ADDING A STAND-ALONE DETAIL

Besides  or in addition links a fact that could stand on its own as reason enough (an outstanding fact);  in addition links more information.  ("linking adverb")

MAIN CLAUSE LINKING ADVERB

Hire him because he is young and smart. 

Besides, he is funny!   (conclusive fact or argument)

They are a well-matched pair. Both have excellent dance technique.

Besides, they are good friends.   (conclusive fact or argument)

They plan, practice and perfect their work.

In addition, they take time to relax.  (information)

They received several job offers.

In addition, they received a promotion.  (information)

 

hire (v.) — offer a job
in stead of, outside of, in additon to, along with are examples of "double prepositions"
Also see  Linking Adverbs   Noun Phrases –reducing clauses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introductory Phrases

What Else?

besides-includes;except-excludes
 

 

Setting Aside vs. Excluding Information

SETTING ASIDE INCLUDED INFORMATION

When asked, "What else?", we express that we are including but setting aside information with besides , in addition to, other than, not including so that we can mention the rest of the details—the remainder of the total (else).

INCLUDED BUT SET ASIDE REMAINING DETAILS

Besides being on time,

he was smart, funny and charming. 

Other than France,

he has been to all the European countries. 

Not including English,

he speaks Spanish, French, German, and Italian. 

EXCLUDING INFORMATION

We express that we are excluding information from the immediately following details with an introductory phrase except for.

EXCLUDING INCLUDED DETAILS

Except for being late,

he was smart, funny and charming. 

Except for Portugal,

he has been to all the European countries. 

Except for speaking Dutch,

he speaks Spanish, French, German, Italian and English. 

 

outside of – "other than"

Also see Noun Phrases –reducing clauses to phrases

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coordinators / Conjunctions

Reduced Verb Pairs

 

 

 

Verb and Verb…

VERB + AND + VERB

Informally, the verbs come, go, hurry up and stay are paired with a second verb. A reduced form without and occurs with the verbs come and go. Other verb tenses may be used with these verbs.

Come and see what I did.  / Come see (informal)

He came and saw my project. 

Go and get your shoes.  / Go get  (informal)

He went and got his shoes. 

Hurry up and open the door.  We hurried to open…

We hurried and opened… (no past with hurried up) 

Stay and have another drink. We stayed to have another drink.

We stayed and had another drink.

AND  or INFINITIVE

Do, wait, and be are commonly paired with a second verb and are joined with either and or to (infinitive).  They occur only with the base form of the verb. Other verb tenses are not used.

Try and do your work well.   (Try to do…)

Wait and see what happens.  (Wait to see…)

Be sure and do it correctly.  (Be sure to do…)

*We were sure and did it correctly.  (Use the base form of these verb pairs.)

 

Pronunciation — The above examples, and is often reduced to "n" as in "Come 'n' see."

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

What else have you done today?

*Except going to school, I did my homework, went to football practice,  cooked dinner and watched TV.

I don't want to go.  I don't like swimming.  And I don't have a bathing suit.   

Not incorrect, but we can use a better word to add a conclusive fact or point to an argument.

*He is vegetarian as well as is trying to remove unhealthy foods from his diet. 

As well as joins like elements, not  [adj–verb phrase]

*Keep bedrooms free of clutter where bedbugs can hide and seal wall cracks and crevices.  Funny!

Solution - lightbulb Pop-Q "And"

SOLUTION

Besides going to school, I did my homework…

Not including going to school, I did my homework…

Other than going to school, I did my homework…

Besides, I don't have a bathing suit. 

Furthermore, I don't have a bathing suit.   

And above all, I don't have a bathing suit. 

He is vegetarian, and (he) is trying to remove unhealthy foods from his diet.     See FANBOYS 

He's vegetarian as well as vegan.(adj–adj) 

Keep bedrooms free of clutter where bedbugs can hide, and seal wall cracks and crevices.  / And seal…

And should join similar sentence elements. Separate the two clauses.

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Various Terms

 

 

 

TRADITIONAL DESCRIPTION LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION

A conjunction and a coordinating conjunction differ in that a conjunction joins grammatically alike subclausal elements, whereas a coordinating conjunction joins grammatically alike clausal elements. (Azar 16-4)  (Swan 510.1-2)

compound sentence– the joining of two independent clauses

In linguistic description, "coordination is the relation between elements of equal syntactic status, and as such contrast with subordination [unequal syntactic structure]."    (Huddleston  "Properties of prototypical coordinators"  15 §2.1)   

compound — the term is limited to the joining of two words: sweetheart, blackbird, copycat, egghead, etc.  [not clauses]

CONJUNCTION (FUNCTION TERM)

and, but, or
conjunction
— is/was a term for a word that joins two like elements, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or phrases (and in some grammar descriptions, clauses).
  He walks and talks contantly. [subclausal elements / clausal elements]

conjunction — is a logic function of A + B "both";   ("and" and sometimes "or") Caffeine is found in coffee and tea. Caffeine is found in coffee or tea. ("both").
disjunction — is the logic function of  A / B "one or the other, but not both", "either"; ("or" / "nor") Would you like coffee or tea?  ("one not the other")

COORDINATING  CONJUNCTIONS COORDINATORS

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so  ("fanboys")
coordinating conjunctions— join independent clauses and the resulting construction is a compound sentence. He is walking around, and he doesn't seem to know where he is going. [clausal elements]
both…and, not only…but also
paired conjunctions — (Azar 16-3)

and, but, or, nor
coordinators — join a variety of syntactically alike structures both subclausal (NP, VP, AdjP, Adv, etc.P) and clausal.
both…and, not only…but also
focusing adverbs—  (Huddleston 6 §7.3) (Swan 24.6)

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS CONNECTIVE ADVERBS

In addition, Besides, Moreover, Furthermore
transitions, conjunctive adverbs —  (Azar 16, 19–2-9)

In addition, Besides, Moreover, Furthermore
connective adverbs —  (Huddleston 8 §19)
linking adverbials — (Biber 10.4.1.4)
discourse marker; connecting adverbs — (Swan 22.1)

ADVERBS PREPOSITIONS / COORDINATOR

as well as, in addition to, along with
connectors, adverbs, prepositions — (Azar 16)

also, as well, too  — adverbs (Swan 46-47); also "focusing adverb" (Swan 24.6)

as well as
comparison/coordinator — (Huddleston15 §2.8)
in addition to, along with, including, plus
prepositon/coordinator — (Huddleston15 §2.9)
also, as well, too, even
additive focusing modifier — (Huddleston 6 §7.3.2)

 

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Talent Show Auditions

  talent show contestants
 

 

Read the Paragraph (without conjunctions)

Talent shows on television are loved ____ hated.  Contestants perform "live" on the stage before the judges ____ millions of television viewers. To appear on a show, a contestant has to be talented and a good performer. ____ the contestant has to be extremely bold.  The judges can be mean.  If they do not like the performance, they buzz the contestants and criticize them.  ____ they insult the contestants.  ___ becoming famous, the contestants hope to get rich. 

Some contestants have neither talent nor good taste ____ fools. Others are very smart, talented ____ creative.  Most contestants are very talented ____ are looking for a break in show business.  With a little imagination ____ hard work, some will become stars.  Most of the contestants will get their "fifteen minutes of fame". ____ they will face rejection and disappointment.

a break (n.) — an opportunity, a chance, a start

bold (adj.) — brave, without fear, not afraid of doing difficult things, courageous

buzz (v.) — an electronic button that indicates rejection — no!

contestants (n.) — people who compete to win

creative (adj.) — use imagination to plan and perform new acts

criticize (v.) — to say the good and bad points of something; express approval or disapproval

famous (adj.) — well known, celebrities

fool (n.) — a person who appears to have poor judgment or a simple mind (or is, in fact, very smart.)

good taste (n.) — the sense of what is fitting, harmonious, or beautiful

insult (v.) — to say unkind things to someone; offend or be rude

live (adj.) /laiv/ — real time, actual time

perform (v.) — sing, dance, do their special artistic act

stars (n.) — famous; successful entertainers 

talent (n.) — having special abilities or skills

talented (adj.) — having special artistic abilities or skills

 

Optional comma usage: smart, talented, and creative  OR smart, talented and creative; See Comma–series.

 

 

Add conjunctions.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the response(s) in the feedback box  by clicking the "check 1-10" button at the bottom, or by clicking the "check" button as you go.

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Magic Act

magic hat

 

 

Read for Errors

Ben wants to audition for a talent show.  He is a tap dancer does a magic act. His act is special because he can tap dance. He can pull a rabbit out of a hat in addition whistling. (He can do all three at the same time.) He went to an audition for a talent show. He wore black pants and a jacket, in addition to his magic hat.

He started with a little tap dance, and then he did his magic act.  He thought he did very well. Everyone laughed and cheered. Moreover, they applauded his performance afterwards. The judges said that his act wasn't original or creative. Furthermore, they already had a magic act.

applaud (v.) — clap; make an approval sound with the hands

audition (v.) — try out; a chance to show the director what he can do so that he can get a job

cheer (v.) — shout encouragement (an audience)

magician (n.) — a person who does magic tricks

whistle (v.) — make a musical sound with the lips

 

 

 

Decide whether the sentence is correct or incorrect.

  1. Select your response—"correct" or "incorrect".
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or "check 11-15" button.

 

11.
Ben wants to audition for a talent show. He is a tap dancer and does a magic act.

   

12.
His act is special because he can tap dance and pull a rabbit out of a hat   in addition whistling.
   


13.
He went to an audition for a talent show. He wore black pants, a jacket, in addition to his magic hat.

   

14.
He started with a little tap dance, and then he did his magic act.  He thought he did very well. Everyone laughed and cheered. Moreover, they applauded his performance afterwards.

   

15.
The judges said that his act wasn't original or creative. Furthermore, they already had a magic act.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Triple-Threat Talent

African dance
 

Read  (without connectors)

Janelle is a tough competitor at auditions. She is often called a "triple threat", which means she has multiple talents. Janelle dances, sings, acts, enchants audiences.

She has studied modern, hip-hop, ballet. She has studied African dance. The African dance types include courtship, harvest, fertility, celebration, wedding, friendship.

Janelle also sings beautifully. She has a four-octave vocal range. She has perfect pitch.

Without using a microphone, she can easily be heard in the back of the room. She mostly sings R & B, pop, soul. She sings gospel.

Janelle has acted in three Broadway musicals: Wicked, Chicago, Lion King. She is currently playing the part of "Rafiki" in The Lion King. She will be going on an International tour to Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines.

audience (n.) — people who attend, enjoy a performance on stage

audition (n.) — try out; show your talents to the judges or director so that you can get the job (acting, singing, etc.); test suitability for employment

enchant (v.) — delight; give a magical quality to a performance

go on tour  (v.) — travel around the country or world

musical (n.) — a stage show with music and acting, such as Chicago, The.4 Sound of Music, Annie, West Side Story, Cabaret, etc.

octave (n.) — music: a series of eight tones  (e.g., A, B, C, D, E, F, G)

R & B — rhythm and blues style of singing

role (n.) — character or part in a play, opera or musical

triple threat — having three talents, such as throwing, passing and running, or singing , acting, and dancing; a person who will easily get hired because of three related skills

 

 

 

Edit the paragraph adding conjunctions  and coordinators.

  1. Edit the sentence in the text box. (More than one response may be correct.)
  2. Compare your response to the response(s) in the feedback box  by clicking the "check 16-20" button at the bottom, or by clicking the "check" button as you go.   Other options for wording is enclosed in brackets [ ].

 

16.
Janelle is a tough competitor at an audition for a musical role. She is often called a "triple threat", which means she has multiple talents. Janelle dances, sings, acts, enchants audiences.


17.
She has studied modern, hip-hop, ballet. She has studied African dance.


18.
The African dance types include friendship, courtship, wedding, fertility, harvest dances.


19.
Janelle sings beautifully. She has a four-octave vocal range. She has perfect pitch. 


20.
She mostly sings R & B, pop, soul. She sings gospel.


21.
Janelle has acted in three Broadway musicals: Wicked, Chicago, Lion King. She is currently playing the part of "Rafiki" in The Lion King.


22.
She will be going on an International tour to Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines.